On membranes of a smooth endoplasmic network there is a synthesis of lipids and carbohydrates. All these products of synthesis collect in channels and cavities, and then are transported to various organelles of a cage where are consumed or collect in cytoplasm as cell inclusions. The endoplasmic network connects among themselves the main organelles of a cage.
The cages forming various fabrics at multicellular animals (epitelialny, muscular, etc.), connect with each other a plasmatic membrane. In junctions of two cages the membrane of each of them can form folds or outgrowths which give to connections special durability.
Endoplasmic network. All internal zone of cytoplasm is filled with numerous small channels and cavities which walls represent the membranes similar on the structure to a plasmatic membrane. These channels branch, connect with each other and form the network which received the name of an endoplasmic network.
Fagotsitoz. Large molecules of organic substances, for example proteins and polysaccharides, a particle of food, a bacterium come to a cage by a phagocyte (Greek "" - to devour). In a phagocyte the plasmatic membrane is directly involved. In that place where the surface of a cage adjoins to a particle of any dense substance, the membrane caves in, forms deepening and surrounds a particle which in "membrane packing" plunges in a cage. It is formed digestive vacuoles and in it the organic substances which came to a cage are digested.
Plastids. In cytoplasm of cages of all plants there are plastids. In cages of animals of a plastid are absent. Distinguish three main types of plastids: the green - hloroplasta; red, orange and yellow - hromoplasta; the colourless - leykoplasta.
On a surface of many cages of animals, for example, various, there are very small thin outgrowths of cytoplasm covered with a plasmatic membrane - microfibers. The greatest number of microfibers is on a surface of cells of intestines where there is an intensive digestion and absorption of the digested food.
One cage contains many thousands of ribosomes, they settle down or on membranes of a granular endoplasmic network, or freely lie in cytoplasm. Proteins and RNA are a part of ribosomes. Function of ribosomes is a synthesis of protein. Protein synthesis - difficult process which is carried out not by one ribosome, but the whole group including to several tens integrated ribosomes. Such group of ribosomes call polisomy. The synthesized proteins at first collect in channels and cavities of an endoplasmic network, and then are transported to organelles and sites of a cage where they are consumed. The endoplasmic network and ribosomes located on its membranes represent the uniform device of biosynthesis and transportation of proteins.
carries out first of all function of a direct connection of cages of animals with environment, with all people around it substances. Having the insignificant thickness (less than 1 micron), the external layer of a cage of animals does not carry out a basic role what is peculiar to cellular walls of plants. Formation of a glikokaliks as well as cellular walls of plants, occurs thanks to activity of cages.
Connection of cages of plants is provided by formation of thin channels which are filled with cytoplasm and are limited to a plasmatic membrane. On such channels passing through cellular covers from one cage nutrients, ions, carbohydrates and other connections come to another.
The cage of any organism, represents complete live system. It consists of three parts inseparably linked among themselves: covers, cytoplasms and kernels. The cover a cage carries out direct interaction with environment and interaction with the next cages (in metaphytes).
Proteins and lipids are a part of a plasmatic membrane. They it is ordered are located and connected with each other by chemical interactions. On modern representations of a molecule of lipids in a plasmatic membrane are located in two ranks and form a continuous layer. Molecules of proteins do not form a continuous layer, they settle down in a layer of lipids, plunging into it on different depth.